Glossary

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A

Additive Color
A color model associated with the RGB (red, green, blue) method of representing color. Equal amounts of the primaries will combine to produce the perception of white light. This is normally used in video systems/monitors.

Adobe Illustrator™
A software package for designing and illustrating. Some features include: a complete set of drawing tools, on-screen drawing and EPS-file formatting.

Airbrush Printer
A large, digital-print machine (for printing billboards, etc.) that uses compressed air to drive inks through the printhead.

Aliasing
The stair-stepped pattern in a bitmap image when the resolution is too low for the size of the output; also called “jaggies”.

Anti-Aliasing
A technique that smoothes the printed appearance of stair-stepped (jagged) lines. One method is to fill the edges of the line with varying shades of color (or gray). This method averages the brightness values of the edges.

Anti-Graffiti
Laminate with a hard smooth surface to facilitate removal of paints and marker inks.

Application
A computer software program that performs specific functions such as page layout, word processing, accounting, drawing and spreadsheet formation.

Aqueous Inks
Water based inks; inks that use water as carrier for the dyes or pigments as colorants.

ASCII (American Standard Code For Information Interchange) (Pronounced As-Kee)
ASCII is a computer code used to transfer numbers and text data between computers that run different software applications.

Aspect Ratio
The relation of height to width of a picture.

ATM®
Adobe® Type Manager® software, which makes type appear sharp and clear on-screen and in print.

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B

Back-lit
Semi-translucent polyester film, coated for inkjet printing, for use in light boxes.

Banding
In digital printing, this term refers to patterns on a print caused by insufficient color or gray-scale ranges within the output device's image processor, or insufficient information contained within the original scan.Banding is most noticeable in printed areas that fade from light to dark.

Binder
Non-volatile ingredient of an ink; it binds the pigments together to form the ink film and bonds that film to the media to which it is applied..

Bitmap
Generally, a bitmap is associated with graphics objects. The bits are a direct representation of the picture image. In a monochrome system, one bit in the bitmap represents one pixel on screen. With color (or gray-scale) systems, several bitmaps in the bitmap represent one pixel or group of pixels.

Bleed
Printed area which extends off the trimmed area. It is not possible to print all the way to the edge of the paper sheet. To achieve this effect it is necessary to print a larger area than is required and then trim the paper down. Typically a designer would allow an extra 3mm of bleed to colour and image areas to allow for a little leeway when trimming.

Block-Out
Banner substrate or self-adhesive film that is totally opaque and does not let any light pass.

Blooming
Overexposure in digital devices; results in loss of detail and distortion at colour boundaries.

Brightness
Lightness value of a pixel ranging from 0 (black) to 255 (white). Also the light reflectivity of a printing media; different brightness levels change the appearance of colours and thus require adjustments in calibration.

Bubble Jet
Thermal inkjet printing systems associated with low cost desktop printers. The term is also used by Canon to describe thermal inkjet.

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C

Calibration
Optimising settings for a printer/ink/media combination to known specifications in order to achieve accurate and consistent reproduction of the final print.

Channel letters
A fabricated dimensional letter without a back.

CIE (Commission Internationale de l' Eclairage)
An international color standards group sometimes known as the Intl. Committee on Illumination. In 1931, using a spectrophotometer to precisely measure color, this group defined a color model where numbers describe colors along three axes. Because this system can be used to store color information, it has become a crucial part of device-independent, digital-print systems. There are newer color models in addition to the CIE.

CIE
Commission International de l’Eclairage, an international organisation that developed colour definition standards, endorsed by Adobe Systems.

CLUT (Color Look-Up Table)
Another term for a correction table, a CLUT is a color-management software reference file that maintains the proper calibration of devices, such as monitors, printers and scanners. (See also, LUT.)

CMYK
The four process colors -- cyan, magenta, yellow and black -- mixed to provide a color image; typically used in printing applications.

Coatings
A clear coating provides protection from smudging, fingerprints, and water droplets. It does not improve the permanence of the print because most fading is due to visible light. On some material, such as canvas, coating can render a print water-resistant, allowing it to be framed without glass.

Cold Lamination
Application of a clear self-adhesive film (PVC or polyester) to protect a print or other substrate; may contain UV-filters; uses pressure sensitive adhesives. Cold lamination is appropriate when heat would adversely affect the substrate.

Color Correctness
The depth and accuracy of an image's color representation, typically influenced by the color depth and palette of an image.

Color Depth
The amount of color information in an image, reflected in the # of color bits compression, lossless scheme of organizing information in a more compact form where all of the original information is retained, while gaining a moderate level of compaction scheme of organizing information in a more compact form.

Color Gamut
The tonal range of colors that can be reproduced by a digital device.

Color Management System (CMS)
Software that allows applications and printer drivers to access information about the color characteristics of monitors, printers, and scanners. The Color Management System uses the color information to provide accurate and consistent color to the output device.

Color profile
Also called device profile. This term refers to the relationship between the color models of the system devices.

Colorants
Substances such as dyes and pigments that make up colours in inks.

Color Sync
System extensions (CMS) developed by Apple Computer that manage the colour description of different devices working together.

Colour Separation
Process of creating separate patterns of films for each colour component (one for each of cyan, yellow, magenta and black) for printing.

Compression
The process of removing irrelevant information and reducing unneeded space from a file in order to make the file smaller.

Continuous Tone
Like original photographs, drawings or paintings, continuous-tone ../image contain real gradients of grays or colors.

Contour Cutting
Cutting around outlines of a printed image on a self-adhesive media with a printer capable of “print-and-cut”.

Contrast
A measure of the ratio of brightness between the lightest and the darkest areas in an image.

Cropping
A process whereby a portion of an image is removed, usually from the outside of the image, to eliminate unwanted areas.

Curl
Bending that occurs spontaneously at the edges of a media when laid on a flat surface; may be caused by atmospheric humidity or by oversaturation with ink.

Cutting Plotter
A vector-driven device (similar to CAS plotters) for cutting sign-making substrates. Recent designs include digital-print (inkjet) systems combined with cutting-plotter systems. (See also, Plotter and Printer/cutter.)

Cyan
The “blue” colour in 4-colour CMYK printing; commonly know as process cyan.

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D

Densitometer
Device used to measure the percentage rate of light that is reflected or transmitted by the surface of a substrate thus indicating the absorption rate.

DIB
Device Independent Bitmap, a variant of a bitmap (bmp) file consisting of header field, an optional pallette, and bitmap data; bitmap has an additional header field.

DIC (Device-Independent Color)
The goal of DIC is to provide an independent, universal standard against which color spaces of all devices in a system can be referenced.

Die-Cutting
The use of a sharp, formed piece of metal to cut out contours in a substrate, for example in selfadhesive vinyl to make stickers.

Di-Electric Media
Specially treated substrates that hold an electric charge for printing on an electrostatic printer.

Digital Color Printing
To use multiple printheads that place specified colors of inks in predetermined places. The results are similar to photographs, but are often larger. In fact, some are billboard size.

Digital Color-Printing Software
The computer programs that create digital color printing. The process uses mathematical algorithms to enlarge and print an image. Also, this software often includes add-on features such as color-calibration software, various pattern selections or a print-instruction screen. (See also, RIP.)

Digital Fine Art Print
A fine art print made by any digital process.

Digital Imaging / Digital Printing
Digital imaging refers to the routines that take place before the output methods occur. These routines include: scanning, photo manipulation, color correction and RIPing. Digital printing, on the other hand, refers to a variety of computer-controlled output methods: inkjet, computer-airbrush, thermal-transfer and electrostatic printers and copiers.

Digital Printer
Any printer capable of transforming digital data files into material copies. The most common printing technologies are thermal inkjet, piezoelectric inkjet, thermal transfer, electrostatic, offset and laser.

Digital Signature
A pattern in a digital print that shows the breakdown of an image into individual segments, such as pixels.

Dimensional Stability
The ability of vinyl or paper to retain its original dimensions under stress or changes in moisture or temperature.

Dimensional
Letters with depth.

Direct Digital Printing
Commercial-quality printing in which electronic source files are processed directly on the printing press or printing system, rather than through analog steps such as film ../imageetting and platemaking. Direct digital printing systems may be based on lithographic offset technology or laser/toner technology. Front-end RIPs and servers are integrated components of these printing systems.

Dithering
Method for simulating shades of grey of colour by only limited number and by varying size and shape of pixels.

Dmax
Highest density one can reach for a substrate on a printing system (printer and ink). Values higher than Dmax do not show on the image.

Dmin
Lowest density one can reach for a substrate on a printing system (printer and ink), normally white. Values lower than Dmin do not show on the image.

Dot Gain
A term that refers to the "weight gain" of halftone dots. During the printing process, the half-tone dots increase in size. Because this is an inherent part of the printing process, the effect of increased dot size should be anticipated ahead of time.

Dot Pitch
Distance in millimeters between two holes in the shadow mask of a monitor. A smaller dp is better, e.g. 0.28 mm is better than 0.36.

Dot
Smallest single ink mark or spot on the printing substrate.

DPI (Dots Per Inch)
A measurement of linear resolution for a printer or scanner. For example, a resolution of 300 dpi means that there are 300 dots across and 300 dots down. A higher number of dots creates a finer resolution.

Drop On Demand (DOD)
Inkjet printing process where discrete droplets are expelled through a nozzle.

Drop
Small packet of ink ejected by a print head before it hits the substrate.

Drying Time
Time required for a print to become touch dry.

Dye Inks
Organic colorants in inks; dyes have the ability to completely dissolve in a liquid (as opposed to pigments which a); dyes are brighter and have a higher saturation but are less stable over time; mainly used for indore insolubleor applications.

Dye Sublimation
Colour printing technology in which the ../image are printed in reverse on a carrier and then transferred to the final substrate; heat or pressure activated.

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E

Eco-Solvent Inks
Inks that contain weaker and less solvents than pure solvent inks. In addition, they are cheaper but not necessarily more environment-friendly than pure solvent inks. Mutoh says their Eco-Solvent Plus ink is a solvent-based ink, not containing any dangerous solvents nor spreading any VOCs (volatile organic compounds) into the environment. Roland makes a similar claim for their Sol Ink. Eco-solvent inks use slow-drying liquids as the carrier fluid. Therefore, printers that use these inks often have heaters fitted to aid with ink drying.

Electrostatic Printing
Printing large-format prints in a process similar to, but not the same as, color photocopiers. If properly done, (and laminated) the ../image are used for billboards, truck graphics, banners, signs or murals.

Encapsulated PostScript (EPS)
A standard file format for importing and exporting PostScript® language files among applications in a variety of heterogeneous environments.

Error Diffusion
In actuality, error diffusion is a random dot-placement strategy (or dithering method), spreading out the inherent failing until it is indistinguishable to the naked eye.

Etching
A method for carving into the surface of a material, particularly metal.

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F

Fading
Reduction of colour density over time mostly due to exposure to UV rays, environmental pollutants and abrasion by dust. Magenta and yellow fade faster than black, which is very stable. Lamination with a UV filter will considerably slow down the process.

Feathering
The spreading of ink into a non-printed area due to the capillary action of the fibres of the substrate causing blurred ../image.

Filler
Material added to an ink to increase opacity; cheaper than pigment. Normally this is chalk or clay.

Floor Graphics
Digital image applied on floors protected by a tough grained laminate.

FM (Frequency-Modulated) Screening
A dithering method that uses uniform dot sizes and varies the distance between them. This method is different from conventional halftone screening, which aligns dots of varying sizes on a regular grid.

Foil
Wax-based or resin-based colour ribbon for thermal-transfer printing; the thin plastic film travels over heated print head and is placed on a substrate by a combination of heat and pressure from the print head.

Fonts
Typefaces in different styles that give documents personality.

Food Grade
Inks that comply with laws and regulations for use on food packaging or marking of food products.

Foot
Unit of length, 12 inches; 1ft = 30.48cm.

Four Colour Process Printing
The most common system for producing full colour print. Originally the artwork and originals were separated using filters and four printing plates were produced. The four ink colours are Cyan (Blue), Magenta (Red),Yellow and Black - often referred to as CMYK. Because the inks used are translucent, they can be overprinted and combined in a variety of different proportions to produce a wide range of colours. The vast majority of magazines and colour books are produced using four-colour process.

Full Bleed
Printed picture or background that extends to the final trim edge of the media.

Future Ink Test Print
From time to time, new inks are released to the marketplace that offer improved longevity, a larger color space, or both. A printer may switch production to new inks if the improvements are material and have been certified by an independent laboratory. Prints from files that were made with older inks will look different when printed with new inks. The future ink test print provides an opportunity to evaluate the effect of using new inks on the print.

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G

GA Ink
Reduction of colour density over time mostly due to exposure to UV rays, environmental pollutants and abrasion by dust. Magenta and yellow fade faster than black, which is very stable. Lamination with a UV filter will considerably slow down the process.

Gamma
Measure of the extent of how compressed or expanded the dark and light shades become in an image.

Gamut
The range of colours that can be reproduced by a printer

GCR
Grey Component Replacement; colour separating process that replaces the black obtained through portions of cyan, magenta and yellow by true black; this achieves more economical ink consumption and avoids the risk of ink quantities not being absorbed by the substrate. in addition this allows to obtain a better neutralisation of the grey tones and achieve a higher Dmax.

Giclée (Fr. "A Spraying of Ink")
A common term for fine art digital prints, especially those done on Iris or Roland printers.

GIF
Graphics Interchange Format, a lossy compression technique, popular for exchanging files electronically, especially on Compuserve; all files have a corresponding palette; maximum colors = 256.

Gloss
Property of a smooth surface with a shiny appearance; different gloss levels are measured as the percentage of light refracted from a surface at certain angle.

Go Ink
Pigmented outdoor ink with high durability and UV-resistance made by Encad

Gradation
The transition between colors or shades. Gradation occurs by mixing percentages of dominant and secondary color and then altering those colors to bring about a change.

Grand Format
Super-large digital-print machines. Their printing process is usually driven by air, but recent machines may piezo print directly on a substrate.

Graphical Display Interface (GDI)
Printed picture or background that extends to the final trim edge of the media.

Grey Balance
Amount of cyan, magenta and yellow required to obtain a neutral grey.

Greyscale
Range of neutral colours; at 8 bit a file can have 256 levels of grey (including black and white).

GSM
Abbreviation for grams per square metre. This indicates the weight of paper or other stock. For example; A typical photocopier paper would be 80 gsm - a good letterhead paper might be 100 gsm - a postcard would be about 250 gsm.

GX Ink
Archival dye ink with high UV-resistance made by Encad.

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H

Halftone
The method of producing a range of tones, such as a photograph or tinted area, by dividing the image into a series of dots. Dark areas have relatively big dots, close together. Light areas have small dots surrounded by white space. The number of dots used determines the quality of the image produced. In a newspaper the halftone dots are easily visible to the naked eye - the screen used can often be as coarse as 60 dpi (dots per inch). A colour magazine would typically use a screen of 150 dpi - An art book, 175 dpi or finer. A halftone screen can be applied to a solid colour in order to produce tints of that colour.

Halo
Lightening of black ink when it is printed near another colour.

Head Crash
Accidental contact of an inkjet nozzle or the complete head with a substrate during printing.

Hexachrome
A colour matching system that allows the combination of 6 colours (CMYK, orange and green) in order to reproduce a larger gamut of colours; developed by Pantone Inc.max.

Hi-Fi Jet
Range of piezo inkjet printers made by Roland DG.

Hi-Fi
6-colour printing used to obtain a more subtle rendition of light tones beyond that of traditional 4-colour processes by adding light cyan and light magenta.

High Resolution Scan
Professional scan at an output resolution of 150 dpi or 300 dpi using color optimized for archival inks on fine art media.

High Resolution
The reproduction of ../image with a great amount of detail or a high level of gray scaling, adding greater detail and sharpness to halftones.

Hot Lamination
Application of a clear layer to protect a print or other substrate; may contain UV-filters; uses heat to activate the adhesive and thus cannot be used on heat sensitive substrates. Prints must be completely dry before lamination to avoid bubbles due to trapped moisture.

HSV
Hue, Saturation and Value; a colour model in which colour is described in terms of chromatic colour, its intensity and its variation from light to dark.

Hue
One of the components of colour represented by angle of a 360° colour wheel.

Humectant
Soluble component of inkjet inks that is used to preserve the moisture content of the inks.

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I

IAFADP
International Association of Fine Art Digital Printmakers, the trade association of leading digital printing studios.

ICC Profile
Colour profile conforming to ICC specifications.

Image Letters Typesetters
Devices that generate the highest resolution paper, plate, and film output for professional publishing needs.

Imposition
The process of arranging individual pages on a form in preparation for the printing press so that the pages will be in proper sequence after printing, folding, and binding.

Ink
Ink is composed of a carrier (water or solvent), colorants (pigments or dyes) and a binder (to fix the inks); may also contain alcohols.

Inkjet printer
A type of printer that sprays tiny streams of quick-drying ink onto the paper. An inkjet printer produces high-quality printing like that of a laser printer.

Inkjet, Bubblejet
Specifically, Bubblejet is a tradename for a Canon desktop inkjet printer. Bubblejet is also a name used to describe "thermal"-type inkjets.

Inkjet, Phase Change
This type of inkjet technology uses solid wax inserts instead of traditional inks. The wax is melted and deposited onto the substrate through the printhead.

Inkjet
Printing process where ink is projected as dots onto a substrate in a pattern to form an image. The most common technologies are thermal inkjet that heats ink in the printhead to the boiling point and piezo-electric inkjet that applies an electric charge to a piezo-crystal which in turn changes its shape and thus expels the ink through the nozzles.

Intensity
Degree of saturation or reflection of light.

Interface
The ways a printer may be connected to a computer or network. Adobe PostScript printers support a wide variety of interfaces, including serial, parallel, AppleTalk, and Ethernet.

International Color Consortium (ICC)
A group of companies chartered to develop, use, and promote cross-platform standards so that applications and devices can exchange color data without ambiguity. Founding members include Adobe, Agfa, Apple, FOGRA, Kodak, Microsoft, Silicon Graphics, Sun, and Taligent.

Interpolation
Process used to artificially increase or decrease the number of pixels of an image, thus improving apparent resolution.

Interpreter
The Adobe PostScript Raster Image Processor (RIP) that translates the instructions in a PostScript language file sent from the printer driver.

Iris Papers
Papers distributed by Iris Graphics for use on their inkjet printers. These include glossy, semi-matte and matte papers, which are used for commercial proofing. Also available are some fine art papers such as Arches for Iris, a paper manufactured by Arches specifically for use on Iris printers.

Iris Print
A print created on an Iris inkjet printer. Also called Iris giclée.

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J

JPEG
Joint Photographers Expert Group; a compressed, lossy format which is symmetrical, i.e. takes the same amount of time to compress as decompress; maximum colors = 16.7 million.

Justify
To space a line out uniformly to the correct line length of the page.

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L

L*a*b*
Colour based on values of light (L), red-green (a) and yellow-blue (b).

Laminate
Thin clear (transparent) plastic film applied to a media (vinyl, paper etc.) providing protection against humidity, abrasion and other wear; also enhances existing colour, providing a gloss, satin or matt surface appearance.

Lamination
A plastic coating which protects the printed surface and usually gives a high gloss finish. Most paperback books have laminated covers.

Large Format Printing
Printing on sheets larger than A3 or on rolls from 36in (914mm) wide.

Large Format
Large format generally refers to a manufacturer's definition of its product.

Layouts
Documents describing the precise layout of a print or prints on a sheet of paper. The layout indicates both the exact size of the prints and the amount of white space around each print.

Levels of Grey
Number of shades of grey between white and black.

Light Magenta/Light Cyan
Modified forms of the corresponding primary colours; help to achieve a more subtle rendition of light tones and more natural looking continuous tone prints on 6 colour printers.

Line Artwork
Artwork which contains no halftones such as company symbols or simple diagrams.

Line Illustration
A black and white drawing containing no gray or midtones to be used for reproduction.

Liquid Laminate
Clear coat applied to a printed surface as a protection against humidity and environmental aggression; can be applied with a brush, as a spray or in a laminator.

Location Map (Spotted Map)
A map annotated with all the locations included as part of a specific out of home media program.

Low Resolution Graphics
The reproduction of ../image with a minimum amount of detail, resulting in a jagged-looking object when output.

LPI (Lines Per Inch)
A traditional halftone screen measurement that refers to the number of lines of dots per inch.

Luminance
The brightness of an image.

Luminosity
Brightness of a single colour.

LUT (Look-UpTable)
The storage space for pre-set measurements and adjustments for different media, file types, printers, etc.

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M

Magenta
The purple-red colour in 4-colour CMYK printing; commonly called process magenta.

Margins
The unprinted area between the text body and front, gutter, top, and bottom trim.

Media
Another term for substrate. The materials to be printed on, such as watercolor papers, canvas, copper, wood veneer, cotton, plastic and exotic papers like Japanese Kochi.

Megapixels
Maximum total number of pixels of a device; calculated by multiplying the number of pixels per row with the number of rows.

Metre
Basic unit of length; 1m = 3.28ft.

Micron (UM)
One thousandth of a millimetre (100μm = 3.9mil).

Mil
One thousandth of an inch (1mil = 25μm).

Millilitre
Liquid volume equivalent to one thousandth of a litre (1ml = 0.03381 fluid ounces).

Millimetre
One thousandth of a metre (1mm = 0.039 inch).

Mirror Image
Reversing an image to be looked at through a clear or backlit film, or for transfer prints that are applied backwards (on the side of the light source) onto the substrate.

Moire
When a photograph has already been screened once (usually a picture that has been printed before) and is screened again, conflict between the previous screen and new one occur, causing an undesirable pattern.

Monochrome
One colour; commonly refers to printing in black on white.

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N

Nozzle
Tiny hole in the orifice plate of the print head from which the ink is expelled.

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O

Opacity
Percentage of resistance of light passing through a substrate; measurement for the capacity of underlying colours or ../image to show through a media.

Opaque
Light blocking substrate; one side does not show through to the other.

Open Prepress Interface (OPI)
A set of PostScript language comments for defining and specifying the placement of ../image on an electronic page layout.

Optical Resolution
The maximum actual (true) resolution of a scanner without interpolation.

Original Digital Print
Artwork that is created entirely or largely on the computer, often by scanning in individual elements and then combining them electronically.

Originals
The basic elements of the artwork. Includes photographs on print or transparency, illustrations, line artwork etc.

Overlaminate
A protective clear film that extends an image's outdoor life and enhances its visual quality.

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P

Page-Description Language (PDL)
Software that resides within a printer and defines how elements such as text and graphics appear on the printed page. PostScript is the industry-standard page-description language.

Pages Per Minute (PPM)
The maximum speed of the printer's marking engine as rated by the manufacturer.

Panel
Also called a tile. A division of a job based on a device's production area.

Pantone
The brand name of a colour matching system produced by Pantone, Inc of the USA. A large range of inks are specified and identified by number to produce standard results across the industry. A reference such as PAN199 indicates a colour in the Pantone range, in this case a bright red. In a colour swatch book the number PAN199C would indicate how the colour looks when printed on Coated or glossy stock. PAN199U indicates how the same ink appears when printed on Uncoated or matt stock. Sometimes the difference can be quite dramatic. It is worth remembering that Pantone inks provide a much greater range of colours than can be achieved using CMYK. This is important if trying to match work printed in four colour process with that printed in special colours.

Pass
Travel of a print head assembly over a substrate; one-pass printers use an assembly of several head to deposit all colours in one run; multi-pass printers require a separate run for each colour.

PDF
Portable Document Format; graphic file format that allows distribution of unalterable documents with the original formatting including pictures and fonts across platforms; developed by Adobe Systems Inc.

Perforation
Sequence of holes, evenly spaced or in regular patterns, along the edge of a media for use on sprocket fed printers.

Permanent Adhesive
Adhesive that creates a permanent bond between a printing media and a substrate; difficult to remove after application without leaving adhesive residue on the substrate.

Photo CD
A Kodak process for scanning transparencies (slides) and storing them on CD in a format known as Photo CD. Acceptable results can be achieved from Photo CD's, but the professional version is required to create large enough files.

Pica
A compositor’s unit of measure approximating one-sixth of an inch or 12 points.

Piezo/Micropiezo
A printer head technology that uses micro-electric firing of crystals to control the flow of ink to the substrate.

Permanent
An outdoor display that remains at a specific location for an extended period of time, usually for a one year term.

Piezo-Electric
Printing technology that uses an electric charge on a piezo-electric crystal to control the flow of ink droplets through the nozzle. The piezo crystal expands and contracts and each time expels an ink droplet. Since the ink does not need to be boiled, as is the case on thermal heads, the piezo printers are more reliable. Also since there are no heating elements the print heads themselves need to be replaced less often. Epson, Mimaki, Mutoh and Roland manufacture piezo printers.

Pigment Inks
Colorants in inks; pigment particles in the liquid medium form a suspension and do not dissolve in a liquid (as opposed to dyes); pigments are more stable over time. Pigments are often based on naturally occurring (inorganic) minerals such as metal oxides or charcoal.

Pinholes
Tiny round spots that are not covered by ink

Pixel
Picture element, or the smallest unit of the computer screen. A pixel can be monochrome or up to the pixel depth available on your color system. Pixels are also used for identifying screen resolution, e.g. 72 pixels per inch.

Pixelisation
Effect that occurs when pixels of an image are enlarged to increase the picture size with a lower PPI; may result in aliasing.

Pixels Per Inch (PPI)
Sometimes termed dots per inch, this represents resolution

Plotter
A term that refers to the CAD origins of wide-format printers. A printer, so to speak, that graphs computer output.

PMS
Pantone Matching System, an industry standard color ink system, frequently used for matching colors across materials.

Point
A compositor’s unit of measurement to designate size of type.

PostScript®
An Adobe programming language that enables text and graphic ../image to be output from different devices with consistent and predictable results.

PPI (Pixels Per Iinch)
A measurement of resolution. A pixel is a unit of data that should not be confused with dpi (dots per inch) or lpi (lines per inch). If there are more pixels per inch, the image will be sharper.

Pre-Press
All processes performed on a printing order before it goes to the press to be printed: copy writing, page layout, scanning, artwork, colour proofing etc.

Primary Colors
Set of basic colours that make up other colours; additives colours are red, green and blue, together they make up white light; subtractive colours are cyan, magenta and yellow, together they make up black; real black is often added in printing to obtain a richer black.

Print File
The file used to produce a final proof that is archived for producing current and future printings of an edition.

Print Head
Component on inkjet printers that forms the ink droplets and drives them onto the substrate; comprises inkfeed, transducer (thermal or piezo) and nozzle. A printer can have 64 or 128 nozzles that can expel ink simultaneously. The major print head manufacturers are Brother, Epson, Spectra and Xaar.

Print on Demand
The digital process enables the reproduction of prints over a long period of time with consistency, allowing orders of small numbers of prints whenever needed. While the process offers a high degree of consistency, editions that require exact matching should be printed at one time.

Print Quality
The characteristics of a printing sub-system, such as the number of lines per inch and paper quality, which influence the perceived quality of a printed image.

Print Spooler
Holding area such as memory space or hard disk space where data files wait before they are sent to a printer.

Print Zone
Area of a media that the printer is capable of printing on leaving unprinted blanks along the edge.

Printer Driver
Software that serves as the communication link between applications and the page-description language used by printers.

Printer-Cutter
Inkjet printer that also cuts contours. Roland and Summagraphics manufacture printer-cutters.

Printmaker
The person who does the actual printing of a digital image. A printmaker uses a printer (the equipment) to make a digital print.

Process Colors
Ink colours that combine and thus can reproduce any other colour; normally cyan, magenta and yellow; black is often added to save consumption of the basic colours.

Profile
Settings of a colour management system that contain the colour reproduction characteristics of each device (scanner, printer etc).

Proprietary
Materials or software designed for use with one specific machine.

PVC
Polyvinyl Chloride commonly called vinyl; soft thin plasticised film, mostly white or clear in a variety of surface finishes (gloss, satin, lustre, matt). For printing applications normally self-adhesive; available coated or uncoated; clear versions also used as laminates.

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Q

Quick Draw
The display language interface for Apple Macintosh systems. QuickDraw printers are compatible only with Macintosh systems and do not offer the performance and features available with Adobe PrintGear printers.

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R

Raster
Image made up of individual pixels.

Reflective
Ability of a surface to effectively bounce back most or all of the wavelengths of incoming light.

Removable Adhesive
Low tack adhesive that does not create a permanent bond between a printing media and a substrate; remains easy to remove for a defined duration after application and does not leave any adhesive residue on the substrate.

Render
The actual and final display of an image or print after transmission or transformation.

Repellency
Ink does not adhere evenly to the media and tends to pearl off; may be due to improper handling of the media (fingerprints) or when inks do not match the printing surface; often occurs on substrates with a high gloss finish.

Resampling
Changing the resolution of a picture file without changing its size.

Resize
It is generally possible to resize files so prints can be made either smaller or larger. Significant upsizing is usually not successful, but an adjustment of up to 20 percent is acceptable.

Resolution
Measure of the detail in an image; the higher the resolution, the higher the amount of detail

Reticulation
Defect in which the ink recedes in certain areas due to incompatibility of the surface energy of ink and substrate.

RGB (Red, Green, Blue )
RGB is an additive color model used in color monitors, conventional photo film and paper to create full color.

RIP (Raster Image Processing)
A process using mathematical algorithms to enlarge and print an image. Also, this software often includes "add-on" features, such as color-calibration software, various pattern selections, tools or a print-instruction screen.

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S

Saturation
A measurement of the purity of a colour; the white content of a pure chromatic colour is 0%.

Scan-And-Print
To produce "instant" posters, banners or other wide-format output, this type of inkjet system scales, interpolates and diffuses bitmapped ../image captured by a scanner. The purpose is to reduce the turnaround time and complexity in producing short-term display graphics.

Scanner
A hardware peripheral that illuminates, reads and then converts original text, artwork or film into digital data. Types of scanners include: flatbed or drum, and color or black-and-white.

Scanning
The process of converting a transparency, negative, slide, original or print to a digital file.

Screen Printing
A printing technique involving the forced passage of a paint-like ink through a web or fabric stretched on a frame, to which a stencil has been applied, with the help of a rubber squeegee. The stencil openings determine the form and dimensions of the graphic.

Scrim
Loosely woven polyester fabric coated or laminated with soft PVC; can be opaque (frontlit) or translucent (backlit).

Secondary Colors
Colour obtained by mixing 2 or 3 primary colours.

Service Bureau
A company that typically offers film-output services. Also, a service bureau may offer design and output of digital color graphics.

Sheet/Substrate
The sheet of paper or other material that will be printed on. The largest Iris printers accommodate sheets up to 35 x 47 inches.

Silvering
Small bubbles with a silvery shine between a laminate and a substrate due to insufficient adhesion.

Small Format
Similar to a large-format in processing, just smaller prints.

Smoothing
Averaging values of a pixel with those of neighbouring pixels.

Solvent Inks
Liquid component of ink that uses solvent to carry colorants; solvent inks are more aggressive and affect the surface of the substrate; normally water resistant and more durable than aqueous inks. Solvents also have the benefit of softening up the media surface, which helps colour pigments to bond; thus they can print directly onto vinyl film or vinyl banner; also referred to as “true solvent” or “hot solvent”. As solvent printers emit VOCs production sites must be ventilated.

Special Colors
This refers to colours which are produced using specially mixed inks from one of the commercially available colour ranges such as Pantone, DIC or Focoltone. They are most commonly used when using Two Colour Printing. To print colours outside the range of four colour process it is necessary to use special inks. If for example the exact colour of a company logo could not be achieved from a CMYK mix then it would be necessary to print a fifth plate with the special ink. It is not unusual, where an elaborate effect is required, to print in six or more colours. There are presses which are capable of printing eight different plates in a single run through the machine. It is worth bearing in mind when choosing a colour for a company logo that sooner or later you will want to print a colour brochure using four colour process. A vivid ink which you have chosen from the Pantone book may not have an acceptable CMYK equivalent. You may be forced to change the company colour or swallow the ongoing expense of a fifth plate.

Spectrophotometer
Overall, an instrument that measures the spectral wavelength of color. Also, this instrument calibrates output devices or monitors, and measures dot gain and color density.

Spot Colour
Colours that print as solid blocks without combining with other colours.

Spot White
White ink that is used as an independent colour for printing white text or graphics on a coloured surface or as block-out on a transparent or translucent media.

Stiffness
The stiffness of a plastic or paper the force needed to bend a sheet to a defined angle. Stiffness together with thickness can affect the runability of a printing media in the printer. Paper and polyester are normally stiffer than vinyl.

Stochastic
An alternative to traditional halftone dots, this random-placement dot strategy is used to render enlarged ../image on large-format printing devices. Stochastic dots are uniformly sized "microdots," and their placement and frequency vary with the tone of the image.

Substrate
Ultimately, the material that receives the printed image. Sometimes, this term is called "media."

Subtractive Colors
Cyan, Magenta and Yellow; transparent colors that are combined to reproduce all other colours; black is sometimes added to obtain true, “blacker” black. See CMYK and GCR.

Surfactant
A component in inkjet inks that reduces the surface tension of the liquid.

Swath
A single pass of the printhead assembly over the substrate.

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T

Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)
A standard graphic image file format usually generated by scanners.

Tensile Strength
Property that describes the strength of a material; the maximum force per unit width that can be applied to a sheet or strip before it breaks. The higher the tensile strength, the stronger the media.

TGA
Target format developed by Truevision; usually 15 or 24 bit full color ../image, compressed or uncompressed; maximum colors = 16.7 million.

Thermal Film
Heat-sensitive film that carries an image from a thermal ../imageetter. When this clear film encounters heat, it turns black and is transformed to an imaged positive.

Thermal Inkjet
Printing process where ink is heated to boiling point and through expansion is then projected from the head onto the substrate. Thermal print heads are cheaper but need to be replaced more often than piezo heads. Canon, Encad and Hewlett-Packard are manufacturers of thermal inkjet printers.

Thermal Transfer
Printing process where heat is used to transfer resin dyes from a carrier foil onto a substrate.

Thermal-Transfer Printer
A machine that digitally prints by transferring inks (resin or wax based) from a foil ribbon onto media such as paper or vinyl.

Three Colour Printing
Theoretically it is possible to produce an adequate range of colours using just Cyan, Magenta and Yellow. In Four Colour Process Printing the black plate adds shade and depth reducing the amount of ink required. Today this system is.

TIFF
Tag Image File Format; industry standard image file format; "tags" represent image attributes, compression, and color tables; both uncompressed and compressed versions, although compressed is not as portable; maximum colors = 16.7 million.

Tiling
Dividing very large image into smaller sections for ease of handling and printing.

Tint
Reduction in the saturation of a colour by adding white content.

Topcoat
The coating applied to the surface of inkjet or other substrates during the manufacturing process. The topcoat enhances ink adhesion and other performance characteristics; it also helps to control dot gain, drying time and moisture resistance.

Translucent
Diffuse transmission of light. No clear image contours can be seen.

Transparency
The preferred medium for photographs intended for printing. Transparencies generally have sharper image and better colour than photographic prints. The three most common sizes are 'five-by-four', 'two-and-a-quarter' (both in inches) and 35mm - the same size as your holiday slides.

Transparent
Transmission of light or certain colours with no or minimal diffusion or scattering.

Trapping
The process of creating an overlap between abutting colors to compensate for imprecisions in the printing press.

Trim Size
The dimensions of a page, including the margins.

TrueType Fonts
Scalable typefaces for Windows and Macintosh software.

Tunnelling
Delamination in the shape of waves of straight tunnels due to insufficient adhesion or tensions in the substrate or laminate.

Twain
Communication protocol between digital imaging devices (scanners, cameras etc.) and PCs.

Two Colour Machine
A press which prints two colours during one pass through the machine. It is possible to print four colour process by printing Cyan and Magenta, changing the plates and then sending the sheets through again to print the Yellow and Black.

Two Colour Printing
Two colour printing is commonly used for stationery because of its cost-effectiveness. The typical design includes a special colour such as a Pantone ink along with black. The special ink is for the 'company colour' for use on the logo and the black is for text. In addition, tints of both inks could be used to produce variations of the colour and greys respectively. For example, if a strong blue is chosen as the main colour then the opportunity exists to have a pale blue tint, perhaps as a background 'ghost' image. A range of greys is also available from tints of black. Two colour printing can be an economic way of producing brochures and catalogues if full-colour ../image are not required. There are creative options such as duotones which can be considered if the subject matter is suitable.

Type 1 Fonts
Adobe's industry-standard outline font technology that enables type to be scaled to any size while staying sharp and clear. More than 20,000 Type 1 typefaces are available from vendors worldwide.

Typography
A specific and distinct style of lettering, also called type, type style or font.

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U

UV Curing Inks
Inks that cure and create a bond to the substrate through polymerisation effected by ultra-violet irradiation from lamps on either side of the printhead assembly; commonly found on flatbed printers.

UV Filter
Laminate with added UV inhibitors that reduce a certain amount of UV light to prevent rapid fading of colorants.

UV Inks
Inks that contain pigments or other methods to resist UV fade from direct sunlight and other UV light sources.

UV Resistance
The resistance to fading under direct sunlight and other UV light sources.

UV Varnishing
A method of adding a gloss finish to printed surfaces. The advantage of UV varnishing is that it is similar to printing an extra colour and can be applied to selected areas to produce special effects. The UV refers to the Ultra-Violet lamp under which the varnished sheets pass for rapid drying.

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V

Vector Graphics
Image made up of individual objects, which are defined as mathematical elements with specific characteristics.

Viscosity
Measurable resistance to flow in fluid or semi-fluid substances; increases with decreasing temperature.

Volatile
Ingredient of an ink or an adhesive subject to evaporation at relatively low temperatures.

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W

Waterproof
Substrate resisting dissolution and decolourisation when immerged into water.

White Point
The lightest tone in an image.

Wicking
Absorption of ink along the fibres of paper, also called spider web effect.

WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) (Pronounced Wizee-Wig)
An acronym meaning that a computer file's output is actually what is seen on the monitor.

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  • 9
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Y
  • Z

A

Account
A term commonly used within the advertising business to refer to the corporate entity employing an advertising agency.

Account Coordinator
The advertising agency employee responsible for much of the day-to-day business of servicing an account.

Account Executive (A/E)
The agency employee responsible for a client’s marketing and administrative efforts.

Advertiser
Organization or person who pays for the production, execution, and placement of an advertisement.

Advertising
Making known; calling public attention to a product, service, or company by means of paid announcements so as to affect perception or arouse consumer desire to make a purchase or take a particular action.

Advertising Structure
Physical structures built by an outdoor advertising organisation to display advertising. The message may be applied to the structure in several different ways. Structures are built to carry standard size advertising material.

Adview Guide
A devise used to evaluate design copy readability in a studio prior to full-scale reproduction for out-of-home media placement.

Agency
A company in the business of creating advertisements, packaging and names for products and services, as well as providing marketing and merchandizing advice and general business and promotional counsel to its clients.

Agency Commission
Sum of money paid to advertising or media placement agency by outdoor contractors for placing business

Airport Advertising
A variety of advertising displays are available at airports, ranging from wall-mounted dioramas (backlit wall posters) to freestanding islands or specially built exhibits.

Alternative Outdoor Media
Out-of-home media that is used to create customized advertising programs that generally target specific consumer audiences. Alternative outdoor media includes, but is not limited to ambient media like: stadium/arena/speedway signage, airborne/airship displays, marine vessel displays, beach panels, ski resort panels, golf course panels, rest area panels, bicycle racks, gas pumps, parking meters and postcards.

Angled
Out-of-Hcome advertising structures are built for maximum visibility to vehicles approaching them. They are classified as angled when one end is set back more than 6' from the other end of the structure as measured along the line of travel.

Animation
Involves special treatment such as moving components, flashing lights, etc. Used to gain added attention and awareness. Animation is more commonly used on rotary, permanent or spectacular type bulletins (laws permitting).

Approach
The distance measured along the line of travel from the point where the out of home unit first becomes visible to the point where copy is no longer readable (having passed out of sight).

Apron
A narrow substrate attached below the display surface of a bulletin structure that is used to cover necessary construction support beams.

Arterials
Are major connecting roads within cities or between towns.

Audience Delivery
The size of an audience exposed to out of home advertising usually measured over one or more weeks. Audience delivery can be represented using several expressions, including : a GRP level, ratings or gross impressions.

Audience
The total number of people who have the opportunity to read an advertising message.

Availability (Avail)
The available media space for sale at any given time. Common to all media.

Average Daily Traffic Count
The outdoor audience is measured by the number of vehicles passing a specific site multiplied by estimated average vehicle occupancy. Traffic counts are available from State Road or Transport authorities and estimates of vehicle occupancy for different types of roads are also available from the same source. All counts provided from this information should be for one-way viewing. Such traffic counts do not include pedestrian audience that may be significant when sites are within a CBD or at a retail shopping location.

Awareness
A measurement of the percentage of viewers remembering an outdoor design in a test market.

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B

Backlight Units (Backlit)
Advertising structures which house illumination in a box to throw light through translucent advertising printed on vinyl for a higher visibility and extended night viewing.

Back-to-Back Sign
An off-premise sign consisting of two displays facings oriented in opposite directions with not more than two faces per sign facing.

Banners
Banners can be stretched out on exterior or interior walls or hung from an ceilings. This product is also a great advertisement at a bargain price.

Beach Advertising
Advertising panels affixed to lifeguard towers or other structures located at or near a beach.

Bicycle Rack Panel
Advertising attached to public bicycle racks that are commonly found on college campuses or in civic center areas.

Bidding
Means the industry practice of negotiating contracts with qualified advertising services suppliers for particular work/service orders, usually considering price quotations vis-à-vis supplier competence.

Billboard
A billboard essentially means a sign, structure or surface, or combination thereof that identifies or communicates a commercial or noncommercial message related to an activity conducted, a service rendered, or a commodity.

Blank-Out
To cover all or a portion of a poster design.

Bleed Through
A term used when referring to painted bulletins where paint from a previous design has worked through to the surface of the new design.

Bleed
When an element, usually an illustration or screened area, prints to the edge of the paper or sign.

Bleed-Face Bulletin
A painted display development which, through elimination of the customary molding, permits painting of the copy to the extreme edge, thus providing greater copy area and more flexible and economical use of cut-outs for three dimensional effects.

Blimp
Light-than-air vessels ranging to hundreds of feet in length which carry specially constructed advertising displays; scheduled to fly over major sporting and other events for massive exposure. Smaller, tethered and unmanned blimps are also used for promotional purposes at point-of-sale, civic center, etc.

Blister
Separation of paint from the surface to which it has been applied forming paint blisters.

Blocked Panel
An Out of Home advertising structure whose view has been obstructed on a more or less permanent basis.

Boards
A colloquial term for poster panels and painted bulletins originating during the period when theatrical and circus posters were displayed on board fences.

Booked
A term meaning acceptance of a contract for outdoor advertising space by a plant operator. In this sense, a showing has been "booked" when it is scheduled to appear for a definite period.

Brand Activation
Often done by Street Teams who are smart, enthusiastic Ambassadors who build excitement at the street level for any brand. They are trained and briefed before each assignment to get consumers interested in any product or service in no time!

Brand Awareness
The act of creating public awareness of a specific brand in order to maximize its recognition.

Brand Name
A name selected by the advertiser to identify a product to the consumer, and to set apart from all other products. Several product variations may exist within a designated brand.

Brand Recall
Brand Recall is the extent to which a brand name is recalled as a member of a brand, product or service class.

Broadcast
To make something known widely; disseminate something.

Bulletin Structures
A type of outdoor advertising meant for longterm use and works best where traffic is heavy and visibility is good. They carry printed or painted messages, are created in sections, and are brought to the site where they are assembled and hung on the billboard structure.

Bumper Sticker
An advertising strip attached to an automobile bumper.

Bus Bench Panel
Advertising attached to the backrest of a bus bench.

Bus Panel
Advertising panels attached to the exterior or interior of a public bus.

Bus Shelter Displays
Posters positioned as an integral part of a free standing covered structure at a bus stop. Backlit or non-lit.

Bus Shelter Panel (Transit Shelter Panel)
A standard backlit advertising panel that is an integral component in free-standing structures located at bus stops.

Business-to-Business (B-to-B)
Communications or commerce between companies (as distinguished from dealings between a company and a consumer); frequently conducted through trade journals.

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C

Camera Ready Artwork
Camera ready artwork is defined as a clean black & white original with a maximum image area of 8" x 10" in scale. Faxed artwork, business cards and black and white photographs, printed items and hand drawn graphics are not considered camera ready.

Campaign
The total planned, coordinated sales effort on behalf of a specific client or product, often multimedia in nature and run over a period of time.

Campus Kiosks
Free-standing displays located on college campuses that often incorporate a campus directory.

Cancellable
A contract subject to cancellation on specified terms.

Cancellation Period
Specifically, the period of time during which a contract may be cancelled. Usually 60-90 days prior to the end of any yearly period for painted displays.

Caps
Short for capitals. (Upper Case Letters)

Car Cards (Train Cards
Advertising displays of various sizes posted in buses, subways, and commuter trains.

Changeable Message Sign
A sign with the ability to change content by means of manual or remote input.

Channel Letters
Letters with recessed surface designed to accommodate neon tubing.

Checking
An actual physical inspection of poster showings and painted displays to make certain that contract specifications have been fulfilled.

Circulation
Circulation (potential viewers) is the foundation for determining the advertising value of outdoor sites. Outdoor circulation is based on traffic volume. There are three types of people in this volume: occupants of cars, pedestrians and mass transit passengers. Generally outdoor circulation figures will only reflect people in vehicles. Occupancy rates vary by State, by type of location and time of day.

Client
An organization that employs an advertising agency to create advertisements.

Clutter
When an advertisement is surrounded by other ads, thereby forcing it to compete for the viewers or listeners attention.

Coat-Out
To cover the copy of a painted bulletin with a coat of white or gray paint, preparatory to repainting with new copy.

Collating
Arranging the individual sheets of posters into the order in which they will be posted on the panel.

Color Chart
A chart containing samples of the standard colors, available from paint manufacturers for use as a guide in painting painted bulletins and walls.

Color Chips
Color samples painted on wood, plastic or paper which are sent to plant operators to enable them to match colors for art work in which colors other than standard have been used.

Color Separation
A traditional photographic process that uses four film negatives to ultimately create a full-color printed product. Recent computer innovations have obviated the need for separated film negatives in certain applications.

Color Swatches
Same as color chips.

Combination Sign
Shall mean any sign which combines the characteristics of two or more types of signs, including the roof projecting and ground projecting signs.

Commercial
An audio or video advertising announcement, usually presented on television, radio or in a movie theater.

Commercial Signs
Usually located on commercial sites, these advertising structures appear on roofs, walls, monopoles or other faces of business establishments or manufacturing plants for the purpose of identification or direction. They are not advertising media signs and members of the Association are not normally involved

Commuter Clock
Combination advertising display and time indicator located in subway stations or other transportation locations.

Competitive Plants
One or more Out of Home advertising plant operators offering products or services in the same market area.

Computer Printing / Painting
Method of applying design to flexible vinyl via computer technology; ensures faithful reproduction of full or partial size, full color advertisements with quality assurance from copy to copy; reusable and resistant to fading, cracking and weather.

Computerized Electronics
Computerized LED or other electronic displays on Out of Home advertising structures; enables a computer operator to change the advertising message electronically on a continual basis.

Conforming Sign
A sign or a billboard legally erected in accordance with federal, state and local permit requirements and laws.

Construction Crew
Employees of an outdoor advertising plant who erect the poster panel and painted bulletin structures.

Continuity
The elimination of gaps in a media schedule by maximizing the duration of a campaign, ideally 52 weeks.

Contract Period
The period for which the outdoor media is sold. Typically, it is sold for 30-day periods.

Convenience Store Panel (C-Store Panel)
Point-of-purchase units that are positioned at the entrance of convenience stores.

Copy
The complete advertising message to be displayed on the advertising structure.

Copywriter
A person responsible for writing advertising copy and generating creative concepts, often in collaboration with an art director or creative director.

Corporate Identy
A company’s name, logo, typeface, colors, slogan, etc., are elements that help comprise its corporate identity. Motto Advertising has produced effective corporate identity packages for many new and long-established organizations.

Cost Per Thousand (CPM)
The cost of reaching one thousand potential viewers of an outdoor advertising display. It is calculated by dividing the monthly cost by the monthly circulation in thousands.

Coverage
The number of percent of families or individuals in a market who are reached by outdoor advertising.

Credit
Allowance made by a plant operator to an advertiser for a loss of service. This takes the form of extended service, extra service, or cash refund.

Cross-Read
An advertising display which is visible across traffic lanes on the opposite side of the roadway.

Cut-Outs
Letters, packages, figures or mechanical devices that are attached to the face of a painted bulletin to provide a three-dimensional effect. May also be called Embellishments.

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D

Daily Estimated Circulation (DEC)
The number of people who will see your board per day as verified by the Traffic Audit Bureau. Also called Daily Impressions, bring the estimated number of persons passing an outdoor location on an average day.

Day-Glow
A trade name for certain inks or lacquers that become fluorescent when activated by the ultraviolet rays of sunlight or special illumination.

Deck Panels
Panels built one above the other

Demographic Profile
Audience breakdowns based on various characteristics such as age, sex, income, education, etc.

Demographics
The vital statistics of a population group or a derived sample, such as: age, sex, education, ethnic heritage, education, income, housing, etc.

Description of Location
Method of accurately describing the location of each poster panel and painted display in a plant. The description indicates the name of the street, road or highway, the address, the side of the street or highway, the direction of facing, and in the case of a highway, the distance from a given point.

Design Description
The caption of poster or paint copy, a description of the pictorial portion, or a number used to identify a particular poster or paint design.

Digital Media
Is a form of out-of-home advertising in which content and messages are displayed on an electronic screen, or digital sign, can be changed without modification to the physical sign, typically with the goal of delivering targeted messages to specific locations at specific times. Digital signs may be scrolling message boards, LCD or plasma display panels, electronic billboards, projection screens, or other emerging display types like Organic LED screens (OLEDs) that can be controlled electronically using a computer or other device, allowing individuals or groups to remotely change and control their content (usually via the Internet).

Direct Mail
Mail, usually consisting of advertising matter, appeals for donations, or the like, sent simultaneously to large numbers of possible individual customers or contributors.

Direct Marketing
Marketing via leaflets, brochures, letters, catalogs, or print ads mailed or distributed directly to current and potential consumers. The direct marketing industry has grown enormously as a result of increasingly specialized mailing lists.

Direction (Facing)
The direction an Out of Home panel faces.

Directional Sign
A sign erected for the convenience of the public such as for directing traffic movement or identifying public facilities but containing no advertising. An advertising sign whose purpose it is to direct the public to the advertiser's premises.

Discount
Reduction in quoted base space rates usually earned by contract continuity.

Display Ad
An illustrated advertisement.

Display Period
The exposure time during which the individual advertising message is on display. Poster display periods vary depending upon individual advertiser needs and copy change periods dictated by the campaigns.

Display Surface
Shall mean the entire area within a single continuous perimeter enclosing the extreme limits of a sign and in no case passing through or between any adjacent of same. However, such perimeter shall not include any structural elements lying outside the limits if such sign and not forming an integral part of the display.

Distribution
The location of the individual advertising poster sites within a market relative to exposure potential.

Double Decker
One panel built directly above another.

Doubled Faced Sign
An advertising structure with two adjacent faces oriented in the same direction and not more than 10 feet apart at the nearest point between the two faces.

Drive Time
The hours when the most commuters are in their cars.

Dye Transfer
An opaque color print made from artwork or color film; permits wide range of color correction during the laboratory process or a match to the color of the original. The process is suitable for reproducing color print in any quantity.

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E

Effective Circulation
Estimate of the audience that has an opportunity to see an outdoor poster. i.e. occupants of west bound vehicles for an east-facing poster.

Efficiency
The degree of value delivered to an audience relative to its space cost; usually expressed as either CPM (Cost per thousand) or CPP (Cost per gross rating point).

Electrical Sign
Shall mean any sign which has characters, letters, figures, design, faces, backgrounds, or outline illuminated by incandescent or fluorescent lams or luminous tubes.

Electronic Message Sign or Center
An electrically activated changeable sign whose variable message capability can be electronically programmed.

Embellishment
Any added feature to an outdoor structure such as cutouts, neon or plastic letters, 3-dimensional objects, extensions, etc.

EMC
Electronic Message Centre that can be remotely programmed to display a message using a personal computer and modem.

End Panel
The advertising structure which is closest to the approaching line of traffic when more than one structure is built in the same facing.

Exposure
Represents the opportunity for a message to be seen and read.

Expressway
Limited access roadway with speed limits ranging from 80Km/h to 115Km/h parking prohibited.

Extended Services
A method of adjusting a loss of service by exposing the advertiser's message to the public beyond the period specified in the contract.

Extention
The protrusion of cut-out design beyond the rectangular border of the painted bulletin. Also may be referred to as Top Out.

Extra Service
A method of adjusting loss of service by posting additional panels beyond the number specified in the contract, or in case of a painted display, painting and servicing a mutually acceptable substitute location.

Eye Catchers (Reflective Disks)
Metallic disks attached to the surface of an outdoor structure that shimmers in sunlight.

Eye-Level Advertising
Advertisments posted at eye level so that the consumers glance falls at them by default without having to crane their necks.

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F

Face
The surface of an outdoor advertising structure on which the design is posted or painted. Usually made of galvanized metal sheets, masonite or plastic. A unit may have more than one face.

Facing
Specifies the direction the poster may be seen to traffic flow. For example: a south-facing panel can be seen only by northbound traffic and vice-versa.

Faded
Loss of color brilliance in poster and paint designs.

Fibre Optic Display
An innovative use of electronic light transmitting fibres to create changeable copy displays.

Finished Art
Art that is complete in all respects; a true prototype of the anticipated reproduction; camera-ready.

Flagging
A tear that causes poster paper to hang loose from a bulletin or poster panel face.

Flash Approach
A space position value factor. Specifically applied to a panel which is visible for less than 40 feet to pedestrian traffic, less than 75 feet to travel moving at less than 30 miles per hour.

Flasher
An automatic switch used on illuminated displays to turn lights on and off at predetermined intervals.

Fleet Displays
Ad displays affixed to the sides of the commercial trucks and trailers operating in metropolitan areas and over the road.

Flexible Face (Vinyl)
A substrate on which an advertising message is rendered by either computer production or hand painting.

Flood Lighting
Lighting outdoor advertising displays by means of very powerful illumination which is directed on to the display from any convenient location.

Flourescent Links
Inks that fluoresce when activated by the ultra violet rays of sunlight on the near ultra violet rays of blacklight.

Flourescent Paint
Paint which fluoresce and produce colors which may differ under the near ultra violet rays blacklight from their appearance under incandescent light or daylight.

Flourescent Tubing
Luminous tubing with a fluorescent powder applied to the inner walls.

Focus Group
A group of potential consumers used in a market research effort, which is usually designed to determine the likely effectiveness of a product or advertising strategy.

Frequency
The number of times an average individual has the opportunity to be exposed to an advertising message during a defined period of time. Frequency in outdoor usually refers to the calendar month since this time period coincides with standard contract practices.

Fully-Wrapped Bus
Specially commissioned transit display in which the entire bus vehicle is covered with the advertising design, including windows, through which passengers have visibility due to special vinyl material.

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G

Geo-Demographic Mapping
The method of identifying specific audience segments on a map, as they relate to out of home locations, both geographically and demographically.

Golf Course Displays
A variety of advertising formats available at golf course and practice range complexes.

Greek
The gibberish or nonsense text placed in a "dummy" to signify where the copy will eventually be.

Gross Impressions
Gross Impressions refer to the total number of impression opportunities registered against the target audience in a Showing.

Gross Rating Point (GRP)
GRP's represent the number of impression opportunities delivered by a media schedule (without regard to audience duplication) expressed as a percent of the population of a specific market. Reach x Frequency = GRP.

Ground Bulletin
A painted bulletin built on the ground as opposed to one built on a rooftop or a wall.

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H

Half-Tone
An image formed by printing close-set dots of varying sizes on paper or other "hard" media.

Head-On
A poster panel or painted bulletin located so that it directly faces approaching traffic.

High Build
An outdoor display built on high uprights to overcome an obstruction, such an embankment or a building.

High Spot
A location showing to extra heavy traffic.

Hook
A clever phrase or melody used to capture the consumer’s attention and help make the advertising message more memorable.

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I

Identity
Visual Identity is the visible essence of a corporation, institution or government agengy. Identity, unified & controlled, can provide a postive association with an organization in the eyes of employees, customers, stockholders, and the public.

Illegal Sign
A sign that was erected or maintained in violation of the State law, these Rules and Regulations, or local law or ordinance.

Illuminated
Outdoor structure with internal or external electrical equipment installed to expose the advertiser's message to night-time circulation.

Impact
The degree of success of a campaign measured by the combined value of coverage and repetition. It is determined by the number of people exposed to the ad multiplied by the average number of times exposed during a predefined period.

Impression Opportunity
That opportunity provided by a poster panel or painted display unit to the passers-by either in a vehicle or foot to see or be exposed to the message displayed. In outdoor, the term "circulation" is often correctly used when "Impression Opportunity" is meant.

Impressions
This is a term used by media to describe and quantify the number of individuals who have an "opportunity" to see an AD in a given amount of time.

Independent
An agency which functions alone, not controlled or influenced by a larger corporation.

Indoor Advertising
Indoor advertising panels located in heavy pedestrian traffic areas, such as public restrooms and nightclubs.

Inflatables
Gas-filled, three-dimensional displays for use at point-of-sale or special events; usually taking the shape of a product, trademarked character.

Information Kiosk Panel
Advertising affixed to a free-standing kiosks that are typically located in civic centers or areas with heavy pedestrian traffic.

Inspection (Market Ride)
The pre-buy evaluation and selection of out of home locations based on the physical viewing of specific structures in a market.

In-Store Display
Indoor Advertising panels located in stores and other retail venues with heavy pedestrian traffic.

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L

Landscaped
A poster panel or painted bulletin location at which the plant operator has planted grass, shrubs, trees, etc. in order to improve the appearance of the location.

Lattice
A decorative network of wood or metal strips placed immediately below the bottom of some poster panels or painted bulletins.

Large Format Displays
Big, bold and larger than life displays and signage that impact viewers attension, by virtue of their size.

Layouts
A design for graphic advertising production, roughly depicting the look of the finished advertisement.

LCD
Liquid crystal display, is a thin, flat display device made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector.used for displaying full motion graphics, static or video advertisements.

Lease
An agreement which permits an out of home media company to erect an off-premise advertising structure on a specific location, with approval by the land owner, for a specified period of time.

LED
Light Emitting Diode, an electronic device that channels light through tubes to create patterns that can produce changing video displays.

Lenticular Film
Lenticular film is the technology that makes the images change shape, move and appear alive leave the audience startled. There are a number of graphic elements contained in the original image that are separated and put on different layers, to produce the illusion of depth in a 2-dimensional image.

Linage
Total lines of advertising; for example, a three column by ninety line advertisement has a total linage of 270 lines. A client’s linage in a specific publication may run to tens of thousands per month. By anticipating its clients’ linage requirements.

Line Of Travel
The center line of that portion of the roadway reserved for traffic moving in any one direction.

Lithography
Popular printing method for producing large quantities of posters in full colour.

Load Factor
The average number of persons riding in each vehicle during a brand activation.

Location List
A listing of all locations included in a specific outdoor program.

Location Map (Spotted Map)
A map annotated with all the locations included as part of a specific out of home media program.

Logo
A recognizable graphic design element, representing an organization or product.

Luminous Tubing
Glass tubing filled with rage gas (neon or mercury - argon) which gives off colored light when an electrical charge is passed through the tube.

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M

Magnetic Signs
These signs can be applied directly to the door of your car, van or truck or on any metal surface.

Mall Displays
Backlit advertising structures located at strategic points in shopping malls; usually two or three-sides, often includes directory format.

Mandatory - Face Bulletin
Copy that is required, by law, to appear on the advertising of certain products such as liquors or beer.

Mapping (Geo-Demographic Mapping)
The method of identifying specific audience segments on a map, as they relate to out of home locations, both geographically and demographically.

Marine Vessel Display
A variety of advertising formats affixed to marine vessels.

Market (Plant Defined)
The defined area wherein a plant operates; can also refer to coverage (percentage of population potentially exposed to the advertising). Out of Home media can also be sold in sub or niche markets (portions of larger metro areas).

Market Ride (Inspection)
The pre-buy evaluation and selection of out of home locations based on the physical viewing of specific structures in a market.

Market Place
Any sphere considered as a place where ideas, thoughts, artistic creations, etc., compete for recognition.

Marquee
Shall mean a fixed shelter used only as a roof and extending over a building to which it is attached.

Marquee Sign
Shall mean a sign which is attached to a marquee.

Mass Transit (Mass Transportation)
Public conveyances such as buses, trains, subways and other rapid transit commuter systems.

Mechanical Displays
Painted bulletins or displays on which animation or movement is achieved by use of electrically powered devices.

Mechanicals
Photostatted elements of a design scaled in the desired position to illustrate the basic design concept.

Media
Means any mass communication vehicle used to convey an advertising message such as newspapers, magazines, radio, television, cinema or outdoor signs.

Media Buying Service
Specialists in planning and buying out of home media and monitoring field operations for advertisers and agencies.

Media Mix
The combination of different media forms into a single advertising program to meet the overall objectives of a media plan. Out of home media can enhance the overall effectiveness of a media mix, particularly by increasing reach and frequency and by establishing brand continuity over time.

Medium
It is a means, or instrument by which message is conveyed to the target audience.

Message
The substance of an advertising communication usually transmitted by words, signals, or other means from one person, station, or group to another.

Mobile Billboard
A truck that is equipped with one or more standard poster panels that are intended for viewing while the vehicle is parked at a specified location or while driving along a designated route.

Mobile Panel
A trailer-mounted double-faced poster panel which is transported to a given location and usually employed for merchandising purposes at retail outlets.

Moulding (Trim)
The frame of metal, plastic, fiberglass or wood which surrounds the face of an advertising structure.

Monopole (Unipole)
A structure fabricated on a single steel pole or column.

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N

Net Reach
The total number of persons within the target audience exposed to an advertising schedule, often expressed as a percentage.

Newspaper Insert
Something inserted or intended for insertion, as a picture or chart or a leaf of paper into a news paper.

News Stand / Newsrack Panel
Advertising affixed to newsstand or newsrack structures.

Non-Illuminated Panel
Name given to a standard poster panel not equipped with illumination.

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O

Obstruction
Anything whatever that interferes with the visibility of the copy on poster panels or painted bulletins.

Off-Premise Sign
A sign that advertises products or services that are not sold, produced, manufactured or furnished on the property where the sign is located. An outdoor display is an off-premise sign.

OLED
Organic light-emitting diode is a special type of light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive layer comprises a thin-film of certain organic compounds. The emissive electroluminescent layer can include a polymeric substance that allows the deposition of very suitable organic compounds, for example, in rows and columns on a flat carrier by using a simple "printing" method to create a matrix of pixels which can emit different colour light. OLEDs lend themselves for the implementation of large areal light-emitting visuals.

On-Premise Sign
A sign that advertises products or services that are sold, produced, manufactured or furnished on the property where the sign is located.

Open Space
Poster or painted display space not currently in use or under contract.

Out of Home Advertising
Inclusive term that refers to a wide array of advertising vehicles designed to reach the consumer outside the home, including outdoor, transit, bus shelters, bus benches, aerials, airports, in-flight, in-store, movies, college campus/high schools, hotels, shopping malls, sport facilities, stadiums, taxis, telephone kiosks, trucks, truck stops, and other specialized media.

Out of Home
All advertising that is specifically intended to reach consumers outside the home. Out of home includes, but is not limited to, outdoor media.

Out of Service
An advertising structure temporarily or permanently unavailable for use as part of an out of home program.

Outdoor Advertising
The term refers to many forms of media that carry advertising messages to consumer audiences outside the home. Outdoor products are divided among three primary categories, billboards, street furniture and transit.

Outdoor Placement Specialists
Specialist in planning and buying out of home media and monitoring field operations for advertisers and agencies.

Out-of-Home Media
All forms of advertising that are placed outdoors to be viewed by consumers.

Overlap Posting
A period of time in which poster showing in a market are on display at the same time for the same account.

Overlay
A paper strip or price designation, such as a dealer imprint for a promotion, which is pasted on the face of an existing poster.

Override
The continuation of an out of home advertising program beyond a contracted period. An override is provided at no additional cost to an advertiser.

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P

Package of Locations
All specific advertising panels included in an out of home media program.

Paint Out
To obliterate copy on a painted spectacular site in preparation for a change in design. Also called Coat out or Blank out.

Painted Bulletins
Outdoor advertising structures on which copy is painted directly on the sections.

Painted Wall
Advertising message (not a designation sign) painted directly on building surface for high impact visibility, often several stories high.

Painter
An artist employed by painted display plant operators to reproduce painted designs on their outdoor bulletins and walls.

Panel Numbers
Panels may be given numbers or other means of identification to aid employees in the posting or painting of the advertising structure. These same numbers serve to pinpoint panels being purchased by a buyer.

Panel Signs
These signs are usually located on an exterior wall of the your business. They are normally large in size, so that they can be viewed by passing traffic. These signs are commonly made of a plywood and mounted directly to the exterior surface or mounted on posts.

Panels Per Facing (PPF)
The number of panels - one, two or more - on a given advertising structure which face the same direction.

Peel
Paint pulling away from the face of the structure.

Penalty
The additional payment or short term charge required when a painted display contract is cancelled prior to the expiration date of the contract.

Periods
The time for which the media is sold for. Usually in multiple of months.

Permanent
An outdoor display that remains at a specific location for an extended period of time, usually for a one year term.

Permanent Bulletin
A bulletin that remains permanently located at a specified site throughout the term of a contract, usually for long periods. A permanent bulletin program can build strong brand recognition in specific market areas.

Photoliths
Photo-descriptive sheets which describe bulletin or wall display locations in relation to the market. Photolith sheets usually include a photograph of the display, a map showing the exact location and information relative to the surrounding area.

Pitch
The presentation of an advertising message to a prospective or existing client.

Place Based Media
Non-Standardized advertising that is strategically positioned to influence specific target audiences in locales where they are likely to congregate.

Plant Capacity
The total number of panels or signs of all types in a plant.

Plant Owner
An individual or company which owns poster panels and/or painted display structures.

Plant
All of the Outdoor advertising structures in a given city, town or area operated by an Outdoor company or "plant operator".

Plant-Operator
An individual or a company which operates and maintains poster panels and/or painted display structures.

Plexiglass Letters
Individual channeled letters containing incandescent or fluorescent lights and covered by a layer or plexi-glass through which the illumination shows at night.

Point of Purchase Advertising (P-O-P)
Signs, displays, and other techniques of attracting attention and promoting products at their location of sale.

Point of Sale
A check-out counter, checkstand, or checkout where people place items they have chosen to purchase from a store, such as a supermarket or department store. This is typically a long counter, which usually contains a moving belt or sometimes a rotating carousel, and a photocell to stop it when items reach the end. The cashier rings up each item on the cash register and obtains the total. The items are placed in bags and the customer can take them after paying.

Porta Panel
A mobile poster panel which may be wheeled to a given location. Frequently used for merchandising purposes at retail outlets.

Poster Panel
An outdoor advertising structure on which outdoor advertising posters are displayed.

Poster
This is a term used for advertising messages that are printed on paper and posted onto advertising structures.

Posterize
An illustration technique used primarily for silk screen in order to give a 4-color process appearance even though flat color patterns are used.

Posting Date
The date when a poster program is scheduled to commence.

Posting Instruction
Detailed information sent to the plant operator covering the display of a particular poster design. These instructions should include as much marketing information as possible so that the seller can choose the panels that have the greatest efficiency in reaching the advertiser's target market.

Posting Leeway
The out of home company is allowed a grace period of five working days before or after a schedule posting date. Allows the company to complete posting without penalty in the event of a delay caused by weather conditions or unforeseen circumstances.

Posting List (Location List)
A list of all locations included in an out of home media program.

Posting Period
The length of time during which one panel design is displayed, usually one month and figured as 30 days for the purpose of costing and credits.

Post-Ride
An in-market field check of out of home locations after advertising copy is in place.

Pre-Pasting
A technique for applying paste to the surface of posters in the plant rather than in the field.

Pre-Ride (Recci)
Physical inspection of site selected for the campaign .Pre-ride are generally conducted between client and media buying agency.

Product - Launch
Officially launching new products and services.

Projection Media
The projection of large-scale images, graphics, photographs or logos onto buildings or other structures, for use in advertising campaigns, promotional advertising and outdoor advertising is called projection media.

Promotion
A method of increasing sales of merchandise through advertising; any activity designed to enhance sales.

Proof of Performance
Certification that the advertising service has been delivered.

Propinquity
Nearness in time and space to a purchase decision.

Proposal
A quote that is provided to an advertiser by a media company, specifying service and cost provisions associated with an advertising program. Common to all media.

Psychographics
Identification of personality characteristics and attitudes that affect a person's lifestyle and purchasing behaviors. Psychographic data points include opinions, attitudes, and beliefs about various aspects relating to lifestyle and purchasing behavior.

Public Service Copy
Copy of civic or philanthropic nature displayed in the interests of community welfare.

Publicity
Publicity is the deliberate attempt to manage the public's perception of a subject. publicity is the management of product- or brand-related communications between the firm and the general public. It is primarily an informative activity (as opposed to a persuasive one), but its ultimate goal is to promote the client's products, services, or brands.

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R

Rail Advertising
Station or terminal advertising that is positioned in close proximity to train tracks.

Rate
The quoted or printed cost of out of home advertising, usually stated for a total program GRP level on a per week or month basis.

Rating
A measure of audience for a television or radio program, used to establish advertising rates.

Reach
The number of people, as a percentage of the target population, that are exposed to an advertising message.

Recall
The recognition of an out of home advertising message by an individual or audience, generally based on a verbal stimulus.

Reflective
Materials that glow or reflect incident rays of light, thereby becoming more visible in the night when light is projected on to its surface.

Reflective Disks (Eye Catchers)
Metallic disks attached to the surface of an outdoor structure that sparkle or shimmer in sunlight.

Regional Advertising
Advertising that reaches regional geographical segments within a given boundary.

Reposting Charge
An additional charge incurred for posting a change of design before expiration of a display period.

Rest Area Advertising
Advertising located in or near highway rest areas and truck stops.

Return on Investment (ROI)
The measurable revenue associated with a specific advertising program. Common to all media.

Right of Way
Area along a highway which is under control of a city, county or state, etc. Billboards are typically located on private land adjacent to the highway right of way. Bus shelters and other OOH media are generally placed on public rights of way.

Rotating /Rotary Bulletin
The movement of an advertiser's message from one bulletin location to another within a market at stated intervals to achieve greater reach in the market.

Rotation
The process of moving the advertiser's message from one location to another at stated intervals, to achieve a more balanced coverage of a market.

Run-On or Extras
Extra posters sent to plant operators to replace those that may be damaged during display period. The number of posters printed for renewal purposes varies from 10% - 20% of the total order.

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S

Samples
To take a sample of, especially to test or examine or to demonstrate in a small quantity, usually for free distribution.

Sandwich Board
Two hinged boards, adorned with advertising messages, that are placed at an advantageous location or hung over someone’s shoulders.

Schedule
Advertising programming. Common to all media.

Scrape
To remove old or expired posters designs from the panel face to ensure a smooth posting surface.

Screen Printing
Method of printing for small to moderate quantity runs, which employs stencils rather than metal plates.

Scrollers
Innovative, backlit advertising display that enhances eye-catching moving images integrated into one box.The scroller quietly scrolls from top to bottom, and then bottom to top, stopping for a few seconds as each poster appears giving enough time for the viewer to see the message.

Shopping Mall Advertising
A standard backlit advertising structure located on shopping mall property with a size consistent to a bus shelter panel. Most mall advertising structures include a mall directory and multiple advertising panels.

Show Card Signs
These signs are used for trades show, dinner menus, directional signage, point of purchase specials, for all interior signage. These signs are a great advertisment at a great price. They come in a variety of sizes and are typically made of plastic or cardboard.

Showing
The percent of the population that will see your board every day.

Sidewalk or Sandwich Signs
These signs are made from a plywood and are usually located next to parking area in small shopping malls.

Sign
Any structure used to display information regarding a product or service. An outdoor unit is a sign.

Sign Structure
The assembled components which make up an outdoor advertising display, including but not limited to: uprights, supports, facings, and trim.

Signage
Graphic designs, as symbols, emblems, or words, used esp. for identification or as a means of giving directions or warning.

Silk Screen
A method of printing used to produce outdoor posters in small quantities.

Skywriting
Writing across the sky by means of chemically produced smoke emitted from an airplane.

Snipe
An adhesive strip that is used to change a portion of copy displayed on an outdoor unit.

Soft Target Advertising
It is non-invasive advertising. Those targeted are not forced to view an ad or in the alternative to switch channels or turn the page to avoid an ad as would be necessary with TV, radio, newspapers and magazines. Truckside advertising is a good example of "soft target advertising" because it appears to be coincidental.

Solar-Powered Panels
The technology and equipment currently exists to illuminate panels with stored electricity generated by photo-electric cells, very much like the ones that power space satellites.

Space Extentions
Reproductions of that portion of graphic elements projecting beyond the normal limits of the painted bulletin to dramatize copy and advertising message.

Spot Advertising
Any advertising presented in selected locales rather than on a national level.

Spotted Map (Location Map)
A map annotated with all the locations included as part of a specific out of home media program.

Stabile
Display that is suspended or that rises from a pedestal at different levels and planes, none of which move.

Stacked Panels (Decked Panels)
Two advertising panels built vertically, one above the other, and facing the same direction.

Stadium Advertising
A variety of advertising formats available in stadium, ranging from wall-mounted dioramas (backlit posters) to field-side panels.

Standees
A poster or placard that occupies standing room usually having advertisments on both sides.

Static Slides
Thery are full-color advertisements without any animation or movement shown on screens for approximately 8-10 seconds each.

Station Advertising
Advertising panels located in subway or commuter rail stations or on transit platforms. Sizes vary.

Street Furniture
Advertising displays, many that provide a public amenity, positioned at close proximity to pedestrians for eye-level viewing or at a curbside to impact vehicular traffic. Street furniture displays include, but are not limited to: transit shelters, newsstands/news racks, kiosks, shopping mall panels, convenience store panels and in-store signage.

Structure
A physical framework on which out of home advertising is affixed or positioned.

Subway Advertising
Advertising panels located in subway or commuter rail stations or on transit platforms. Sizes vary.

Subway Card
An advertising poster attached to the interior of a subway car.

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T

Table Tents
Traditionally used for advertising in restaurants, bars, and nightclubs, table tent it is a a folded piece of paper/ card kept on the table resembling a inverted 'V' or a tent shape.

Target Audience
A desired group of prospective consumers who are most likely to consider the purchase of a particular product or service. Target audiences are often defined by specific demographic characteristics such as product consumption, purchase behavior, age, gender or many different social classifications.

Taxi Display/Taxi Tops
Advertising structures affixed to taxicabs, either on the roof or boot area. Roof panels are called taxi-tops and are generally backlit.

Testimonial
A statement, often given by a celebrity, affirming the value of a product, event or service. The authority, glamour, character or special knowledge of a celebrity can reflect on the advertised product.

Touch Point
A touchpoint is an ideal locations to reach concentrated target demographic and psychographic audience.

Trade Show
A convention at which advertising agencies or related companies show and compare products and ideas. Companies frequently underwrite elaborate displays, receptions, presentations and giveaways for trade shows in their industry.

Traffic Flow
A graphic presentation of the traffic volume upon any system of streets, arteries or highways, indication by width of lines which vary with the amount of traffic carried.

Train Cards (Car Cards)
Advertising displays of various sizes located inside buses, subway cars and commuter trains.

Transit Advertising
Advertising displays affixed to moving vehicles or in the common areas of transit stations, terminals and airports. Transit displays include, but are not limited to: interior and exterior bus panels, subway and rail panels, airport panels, taxi panels and truckside panels.

Traveling Displays
Posters used on the sides of buses, available in a variety of sizes.

Tri-Vision
It is a sign-board that displays three messages in the space of one. It is composed by a number of prisms lined-up among themselves in aluminum alloy, which, on turning, can compose three alternate images in the same space.

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U

Ubiquity
Even saturation and distribution of a market with out of home advertising structures.

Unipole (Monopole)
Advertising structures fabricated to support advertising panels on a single street pole or column.

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V

Vegetation and Landscape Maintenance
Highway landscaping practices commonly employed by utility industries, roadside businesses located along public right of ways and out of home advertising companies. The Out of Home Industry encourages vegetation and landscape maintenance in compliance with state and local laws and regulations.

Vehicle Lettering
We can custom design your company car, van or truck and even your boat with either hand painting or vinyl lettering and graphics. It can be as simple as a company name on both doors or a complete design covering all doors and sides. .

Video Billboards
Bulletins, posters or wallscape with screens that can beam full color ads to motorists from sundown to midnight. Potentially, Out of Home advertising may even include holographic displays, laser lighting systems, and satellite transmissions to enable advertisers to produce virtually any effect they desire on their out of home displays, laws permitting.

Vinyl
A single-sheet substrate on which an advertising message is rendered by either computer production or hand painting. Vinyl is primarily used on the face of bulletins & Premiere products.

Vinyl Wraps
We can custom design your ad and print your design on large-format digital printing machines on seamless vinyl material. Can be used indoor and outdoors.

Visibility
Quality or fact or degree of being visible; perceptible by the eye or obvious to the eye.

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W

Wraps
Advertisments wraped on any plane surface like pillars, vehicles or subways or wall murals.

Walking Inflatbles
These are large human size air filled ballons that resemble the brand logo, or mascott and are usually worn by a promorter. Products become alive with movement, instantly developing an approachable personality, and establishing a positive advertisement of both the corporate brand image and identity.

Wall Display
An advertising display that is placed on the surface of a building and displayed to consumers. Wall displays generally have high impact due to their large size and customized creative which must fit the particular dimensions of each wall.

Wall Mural
An advertising display applied directly onto the exterior surface of a building. Wall murals are commonly painted directly onto a wall surface. However, a painted or printed vinyl substrate can also be applied to a wall surface, depending on the location.

Wave Posting
Concentration of poster showings in a succession of areas within the market. Usually coincides with special promotions in the designated areas.

Window Lettering
Vinyl graphic and lettering can be applied directly to windows for economical and effective advertising. Pre-spaced lettering and graphics can be shipped directly to you with instruction on installation.

Word of Mouth
Word of mouth is a formalized marketing effort designed to stimulate the passing of information by verbal means, especially recommendations, but also general information, in an informal, person-to-person manner, rather than by mass media, advertising, organized publication, or traditional marketing. Word of mouth is typically considered a face-to-face spoken communication, although phone conversations, text messages sent via SMS and web dialogue, such as online profile pages, blog posts, message board threads, instant messages and emails are often now included in the definition of word of mouth.

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  • 9
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Y
  • Z

A

AAU (Attitude, Awareness and Usage) Study
A type of tracking study that monitors changes in consumer attitudes, awareness and usage levels for a product category or specific brand.

Accuracy
The degree of conformity of a sample statistic to the population.

Active Buyer
Customer whose latest purchase was made within the last 12 months.

Ad Concept Testing
Testing used to determine the target audience reaction to alternative advertising approaches or preliminary ad concepts.

Ad Hoc Surveys
Questionnaires administered to the target audience with no prior contact by the researcher.

Ad Positioning Statement Tests
Testing to determine reactions of the target audience to positioning statements that are being considered for use in advertisements.

Ad Tracking Research
Periodic measurements of the impact of advertisements over time.

Agency
Any individual, organisation, department or division, including those belonging to the same organisation as the client, responsible for or acting as a supplier on all or part of a research project.

Allowable Sampling Error
The amount of sampling error the researcher is willing to accept.

Area Samples
Samples which include geographic areas as part of the sample design.

Audit
The examination and verification of the sale of a product. A method for measuring sales in a store by counting beginning inventory, adding new shipments, and subtracting ending inventory. Also used to determine inventory lost to theft.

Awareness
The proportion of people who are familiar with a product, brand name or trademark.

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B

Banner
The column headings, or cross-tab breaks, that run horizontally across the top of a computer table.

Base
The number on which the percentages in a table are calculated.

Basic Research
Research aimed at expanding knowledge rather than solving a specific, pragmatic problem.

Benchmark
A control source against which you compare the area you're studying. For example, you may compare the results of a study in one state to the results of the nation as a whole.

Bias
A systematic tendency of a sample to misrepresent the population. Biases may be caused by improper representation of the population in the sample, interviewing techniques, wording of questions, data entry, etc.

Boundary
The border around a market area that is being studied.

Brand Associations
Components of brand image, usually (but not always) assessed by qualitative research method.

Brand Equity
The level of awareness and consumer goodwill generated by a company's brands and/or products.

Buying Intent
A scale used to measure the likelihood that the respondent will purchase a product.

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C

Causal Research
Study examining whether one variable causes or determines the value of another.

Client
Any individual, organisation, department or division, including those belonging to the same organisation as the research agency, responsible for commissioning or who agree to subscribe to a market research project.

Closed-End Question
Questions that ask the respondent to choose from a limited number of pre-listed answers.

Cognitive Component of Attitudes
An individual's knowledge and beliefs about an object.

Comparative Scales
A judgment comparing one object, concept or person against another on a scale.

Concept Description
A brief description of a new product or service.

Conclusions
The outcome or result; the section of the final report that contains the interpretation of the data in light of the research objectives. See also executive summary.

Constitutive Definition
Advertising displays of various sizes posted in buses, subways, and commuter trains.

Consumer Orientation
Identification of and focus on the individuals or firms most likely to buy a product or service.

Content Analysis
A technique used to study written material (usually advertising copy) by breaking it into meaningful units, using carefully applied rules.

Continuous Research
A survey conducted on a regular and frequent basis among parallel samples within the same population or a survey in which the interviews are spread over a long period of time.

Custom Marketing Research
Customized marketing research to address specific projects for corporate clients.

Customer Satisfaction Research
Research conducted to measure overall satisfaction with a product or service and satisfaction with specific elements of the product or service.

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D

Data
The collection of observations.

Day-After Recall
An advertising testing technique that measures the proportion of people recalling an outdoor advertising campaign within 24 hours of its installation.

Descriptive Studies
These studies answer the questions who, what, when, where, how.

Discussion Question
A question which has no pre-listed answers and thus allows the respondent to answer in his/her own words. Also known as open-ended question.

Disguised Observation
The process of monitoring people, objects, or occurrences that do not know they are being watched.

Distribution Check
A study measuring the number of stores carrying specified products, along with the number of facings, special displays, and prices of the products.

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E

Editing
The process of ascertaining that questionnaires were filled out properly, completely and accurately.

Element Sampling
A procedure in which each unit of a population has an equal chance of being chosen.

Evaluate Research
Research to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of specific programs.

Executive Summary
The portion of a research report that explains why the research was done, what was found and what those findings mean, and what action, if any, management should undertake.

Experiment
The process of making an observation or taking a measurement.

Experimental Design
A test in which the researcher has control over one or more independent variables and manipulates them.

Experimental Effect
The effect of the treatment variable on the dependent variable.

Experimental Unit
The basic element on which the experiment is conducted. Also called a subject, unit, respondent, participant or unit of analysis.

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F

Factor
A variable that is controlled or manipulated by the researcher. May also be known as the independent variable or factor.

Factor Analysis
Procedure for data simplification through reducing the many rating scales (or set of variables) used by the researcher to a smaller set of factors or composite variables by identifying dimensions underlying the data.

Field Experiments
Tests conducted outside the laboratory in an actual market environment.

Field Service
Collection of survey data.

Frequency
A measure of how often an event occurs; a count of the number of subjects falling in the different categories.

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G

Group Discussions/Focus Groups
A number of respondents gathered together to generate ideas through the discussion of, and reaction to, specific stimuli. Under the steerage of a moderator, focus groups are often used in exploratory work or when the subject matter involves social activities, habits and status.

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H

Homogeneous Groups
Groups in which the units or individuals have extremely similar characteristics.

Humanistic Inquiry
A research method in which the researcher is immersed in the system or group under study.

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I

Intercept
A recruitment method in which an interviewer stops people in a mall or other public location and administers survey.

Itemized Rating Scales
Scales in which the respondent selects an answer from a limited number of ordered categories.

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J

Judgment Sample
A sample containing certain types of respondents, who are selected on the basis of the judgment that their attitudes or behavior will be representative of the population.

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L

Laboratory Experiments
Experiments conducted in a controlled setting.

Lifestyle Research
Research that attempts to explain behavior by analyzing people's attitudes, hobbies, activities and opinions. Often associated with psychographic research.

Logit Model
A version of regression analysis using an S-shaped curve instead of a straight line. Used when responses are binary, e.g., yes/no, rather than continuous numbers.

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M

Mall Intercept Interviewing
Shoppers are intercepted in public areas of malls and interviewed face-to-face.

Market
Total of all individuals or organizations that represent potential buyers.

Market Segmentation
The process of dividing a total market into sub-groups of consumers who exhibit differing sensitivities to one or more marketing mix variables.

Marketing
The process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives.

Marketing Information Systems (MIS)
These systems create rather than simplify manipulated data, presenting data in a form useful to a variety of people within the organization.

Mean
The sum of the values for all observations of a variable divided by the number of observations.

Measurement
Process of assigning numbers or labels to things in accordance with specific rules to represent quantities or qualities of attributes.

Methodology
The research procedures used; the section of the final report in which the researcher outlines the approach used in the research, including the method of recruiting participants, the types of questions used, and so on. Methodology can also mean the approach a moderator uses to conduct focus groups.

Metric Scale
Identifies categories of the variable in which observations can be ranked from smallest to largest and the distance between variables is meaningful and the ratios of the observations are meaningful. Also known as ratio scale. Examples include weight, height, age, etc.

Mystery Shopping
Identifies categories of the variable in which observations can be ranked from smallest to largest and the distance between variables is meaningful and the ratios of the observations are meaningful. Also known as ratio scale. Examples include weight, height, age, etc.

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N

Non-Comparative
A judgment made without reference to another object, concept, or person.

Numeric Database
Database containing original survey data on a wide variety of topics.

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O

Objectives
The information to be developed from a study to serve the project's purpose.

Observation Research
Descriptive research that monitors respondents' actions without direct interaction. Sometimes called a quasi-experiment.

One-Way Frequency Table
A table showing the number of responses to each answer of a survey question.

Ordinal Scale
Identifies categories of the variable which can be ranked from smallest to the largest, but the distance between observations is not meaningful. An example would be a question which attempts to record the degrees of opinions using terms such as poor, fair, good and excellent.

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P

Parameter
Numerical summary measure of a population distribution.

Primary Data
New data gathered to help solve the problem at hand. As compared to secondary data with is previously gathered data.

Primary Research
Conducting research to collect new data to solve a marketing information need. See also secondary research.

Product Concept Testing
The testing of new product ideas before they have been turned into prototypes.

Product Placement Study
A type of test in which respondents try a product under normal usage conditions. Example: in-home test of a food product. Also called a product test.

Product Positioning Research
Research used to determine how competitive brands are perceived relative to each other on key dimensions.

Psychographics
Research that attempts to explain behavior by analyzing people's personality traits and values. Often associated with lifestyle research.

Purpose
The reason a research project is being conducted; usually focuses on the decisions for which information from the study will be used.

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Q

Qualitative
Research data not subject to quantification or quantitative analysis; characterized by the absence of empirical measurements and an interest in subjective evaluation. Qualitative methodologies include focus groups, mini-groups, one on-ones and open ended-questions.

Qualitative Research
A body of research techniques which seeks insights through loosely structured, mainly verbal data rather than measurements. Analysis is interpretative, subjective, impressionistic and diagnostic.

Quantitative Research
Research conducted for the purpose of obtaining empirical evaluations of attitudes, behavior or performance. Designed to generate projectable numerical data about a topic.

Questionnaire
A set of questions designed to generate data necessary for accomplishing the objectives of the research project.

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R

Random Sampling
A sample in which each unit has an equal and independent chance of selection. Also known as probability sample.

Recommendations
The section of the final report that suggests the next action steps a client could take, based on the conclusions of the research.

Research Design
The plan to be followed to answer the research objectives; the structure or framework to solve a specific problem.

Rule
A guide or a command that tells a researcher what to do.

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S

Sample Distribution
A frequency distribution of all the elements of an individual sample.

Sample Population
The population from which the sample is obtained.

Sampling
The method of selecting a specified portion, called a sample, from a population, from which information concerning the whole can be inferred.

Sampling Error
The estimated inaccuracy of the results of a study when a population sample is used to explain behavior of the total population.

Sampling Unit
The elements available for selection at during the sampling process.

Secondary Data
Data that has been previously gathered.

Secondary Research
Analyzing information from previously conducted research projects. See also primary research.

Segment
Portion selected on the basis of a special set of characteristics.

Selection
Process of choosing records using specific criteria from a population.

Selection Bias
Systematic differences between the test group and control group because of a biased selection process.

Shopper Patterns
Drawings that record footsteps of a shopper through a store.

Simple Random Sample (SRS)
A sample selected in such a way that every element of the population has a known and equal chance of being chosen for the sample. Also called random sample.

Site Evaluation
Determining, through an analysis of a given area's demographic and economic characteristics, whether it offers a good market for a product or service.

Specialized Service or Support Firms
Companies that handle a specific facet of research, such as data processing or statistical analysis, for many corporate clients.

Specifications
The criteria for participants in a focus group, involving their demographic characteristics, product usage, product awareness, and so on.

Stability
Lack of change in results from test to retest.

Strata
Segments of the population.

Subject
The basic element on which the experiment or study is conducted. Also known as a participant, experimental unit, respondent, unit or unit of analysis.

Survey
The systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of information about some aspect of study. In market research the term is applied particularly to the collection of information by means of sampling and interviews with the selected individuals.

Survey Objectives
The decision-making information sought through the questionnaire.

Survey Research
Research in which an interviewer interacts with respondents to obtain facts, opinions and attitudes.

Systemic Error
Error that results from the research design or execution.

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T

Tabulation
Putting data collected during research into tables. Cross-tabulation involves a two dimensional table, based on answers to two of the questions included in a survey.

Target Population
The population which is being studied.

Test Market
Trial market for a new product or service offer.

Tests of Significance
Tests for determining whether observed differences in a sample are sufficiently large as to be caused by something other than mere chance.

Time Use Survey
A survey of how people use their time, taken by asking people to record what they do and how they do it in a diary over several days or weeks.

Tracking
Studies repeated over time to monitor changes in a brand or product category.

Trade Area
Geographical area from which the customers of a business are drawn; it can be as small as a section of a city or as large as the entire country.

Traffic Counters
Machines used to measure vehicular flow over a particular stretch of roadway.

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U

Unit of Analysis
The basic element on which the experiment or study is conducted or from which data are collected. Also known as the respondent, participant, unit, subject or experimental unit.

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V

Validity
Whether what we tried to measure was actually measured.

Variability
Differences in the measurement of variables.

Variable
Any characteristic that can be measured on each unit of the population.

Viewing Facility
Premises used for conducting market research, particularly group discussions. Rooms have observation suites where the client can observe the proceedings undetected by the respondents either by video link or through a one-way mirror.

Virtual Reality (VR)
An artificial environment that is experienced through sensory stimuli provided by a computer, it is one of the latest technologies to be applied as a tool in experimentation.

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W

Weighing
Assigning a numerical coefficient to an item to express its relative importance in a frequency distribution.

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